Morphological identification of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces mostly follows the protocols of Raper & Fennell (1965), Klich (2002), Pitt & Hocking (2009) and Samson et al. (2010). Molecular tools, especially phylogenetic species recog- nition, are increasingly being used with the internali transcribed spacers of the nrDNA (ITS) now accepted as the official DNA barcode for fungi.However, this locus is insufficient for correctly identifying all Aspergillus species and thus a secondary identification markers are nessary. Foridentifying and characterising species  of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and related genera in the Eurotiales DNA markers are recommended for reliable species identification.